PhD Defense by Christopher K. Wyczalkowski

Event Details
  • Date/Time:
    • Tuesday June 13, 2017
      1:30 pm - 3:30 pm
  • Location: Andrew Young School of Policy Studies: Georgia State University Room #507
  • Phone:
  • URL:
  • Email:
  • Fee(s):
    N/A
  • Extras:
Contact
No contact information submitted.
Summaries

Summary Sentence: EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF RAIL INTRA-URBAN TRANSIT STATIONS ON NEIGHBORHOOD CHANGE

Full Summary: No summary paragraph submitted.

 

EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF RAIL INTRA-URBAN TRANSIT STATIONS ON NEIGHBORHOOD CHANGE

 

 

 

 

June 13, 2017

1:30 pm

Andrew Young School of Policy Studies

Georgia State University

Room #507

 

 

Committee:

Dr. Ann-Margaret Esnard (Chair)

Dr. Joseph Hacker

Dr. Dan Immergluck

Dr. Kyle Mangum

Dr. John Thomas

 

Development of heavy rail intra-urban public transportation systems is an economically expensive policy tool for State and Local Governments that is often justified with the promise of economic development and neighborhood revitalization around station areas. However, the literature on the effects of rail intra-urban transit stations on neighborhoods is relatively thin, particularly on the socioeconomic effects. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the effect of heavy rail intra-urban transit stations on surrounding neighborhoods, using Atlanta, Georgia and its transit authority, the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA), as a case study. Atlanta is an expansive American city, with a large mass transportation system, but low population density and no large-scale policies promoting growth around MARTA rail stations. The study period, 1970 to 2014, covers the entire period of MARTA’s existence – stations opened between 1979 and 2000. Neighborhood change was operationalized with a neighborhood change index (NCI), built on the Neighborhood Life-Cycle framework, with an adaptation that incorporates both the filtering and gentrification models of neighborhood change. The study differentiates between an initial effect of new MARTA rail stations, and a long-term effect. Control groups are formed using one and three mile buffers, as well as a matching strategy. Difference-in-difference (DID) models indicate a positive relationship of neighborhoods with new stations and gentrification in all decades from 1990 to 2010, but a negative relationship for the period 2010-2014. The economic recovery that began in 2010 is of special interest for housing research. To control for selection bias in the 2010 to 2014 economic time-period, this study utilized propensity score matching to balance the treatment and control group on observed characteristics. A time and tract fixed effects model using the matched treatment and control groups found a significant positive effect of stations on neighborhood change. To test the long-term effect, a time and tract fixed effects model (1970-2014) with the NCI as the dependent variable found a positive NCI effect of MARTA stations on neighborhoods. Therefore, overall, positive neighborhood change (on the NCI scale) can be attributed to MARTA transit stations. In the recovery time-period the evidence was mixed, but the more robust fixed effects model indicates gentrification around MARTA stations during recovery. Since 2002 MARTA ridership has slightly declined; therefore, the study concludes that given stagnant ridership, lack of supporting policy, and the finding of a positive relationship between MARTA transit stations and gentrification, the stations are a positive amenity, and are a significant contributor to neighborhood change. However, neighborhoods are heterogeneous and the effect of rail intra-urban transit stations on neighborhoods may not be homogeneous, and may depend on the tract’s location and characteristics. Future research will utilize this methodology to compare the effect of intra-urban transit stations on neighborhoods across cities.

 

 

This dissertation defense is open – all faculty members and students are invited to attend the examination and participate in the discussion.  For further information, contact the Graduate Programs Coordinator, Georgia Tech School of Public Policy at (404) 894-0417; email: sppgrad@pubpolicy.gatech.edu. For a copy of the dissertation abstract or any questions please e-mail Chris Wyczalkowski at cwyczalkowski@gatech.edu.

Additional Information

In Campus Calendar
No
Groups

Graduate Studies

Invited Audience
Faculty/Staff, Public, Undergraduate students
Categories
Other/Miscellaneous
Keywords
Phd Defense
Status
  • Created By: Tatianna Richardson
  • Workflow Status: Published
  • Created On: May 23, 2017 - 4:22pm
  • Last Updated: May 23, 2017 - 4:22pm